A 2019 study in the Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health published research findings that indicated the prevalence of kidney stones in India. Results showed that more females (56%) than males (44%) were at risk of developing kidney stones.


Symptoms of stones can range from severe pain to fever and nausea. Typically, medical practitioners cannot pinpoint distinct causes for the occurrence of  stones, but cite several risk factors like diabetes and high blood pressure. Also called renal calculi, kidney stones are hard mineral and salt deposits that form inside the kidneys.


They may be tiny or large, affecting any part of the urinary tract — the kidneys, the ureter or the bladder. Usually, stones form by a concentration of urine, permitting the crystallization of minerals sticking together.




Kidney stones may be as miniscule as a grain of sand, or large enough to take up space for your entire kidney. Here are the main causes:


  • Stones form when urine doesn’t have enough fluid to dilute an unusually high concentration of minerals and salts. Substances in urine, like oxalate, calcium and uric acid blend to form crystals.
  • Certain minerals in medications (like Vitamin C) may cause kidney stones.
  • Too much salt intake leads to kidney stones.
  • Lack of fluid intake, like not drinking enough water may cause stones to form.
  • Certain medical conditions can predispose a person to kidney stones. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, gout and cystic fibrosis. Digestive disorders caused by gastric bypass surgery and chronic diarrhoea can also increase the risk of stones forming, as these cause changes in the absorption of calcium and water in the body.


The usual symptoms of stone includes sudden, stabbing pain in the lower back, abdomen or sides, being an indication to seek medical attention.


Types of Stones


Doctors agree that knowledge of the type of stone helps to determine its cause, and gives clues about prevention in the future. The following are the types:

  • Stones of calcium – Most stones are calcium stones, formed of calcium oxalate, made daily by the liver, or absorbed from diet. Gastric and metabolic disorders increase calcium oxalate in urine, as do medications like Vitamin C or D.
  • Stones of struvite – When a urinary tract infection is present, struvite stones may form. These can grow quickly, and can become quite large.
  • Stones of uric acid – These form in people who experience a loss of fluid from chronic diarrhoea. Malabsorption also causes the formation of uric acid stones. Usually those with diabetes or metabolic disorders may have these.
  • Stones of cysteine – These are formed in people who have cystinuria, a hereditary disease that causes the excretion of excess amino acids by the kidneys.


Prevention of Stones


Once you’ve had a kidney stone, there’s a 50% chance you might get one again in  10 years. Although there’s no sure way to prevent getting one, there are certain dietary and lifestyle routines that could prevent a lot of grief. The Bajaj Health Card hospital list will help you find urologists that you can consult for any kidney issues, but here are some preventive measures you can take:


  • Drink more water – Water keeps urine output high. Citrate, in lemonade or orange juice prevents stones too.
  • Avoid calcium-rich supplements – Instead of supplements, high in oxalates, it’s better to consume low-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, all natural forms of calcium intake, with less oxalates.
  • Consume less salt.
  • Limit food high in animal protein as these are acidic, increasing urine acid.
  • Avoid Vitamins like C and D.


Treatment and Cure


Treatment for tiny stones is fluid intake. Stones will likely be flushed out on their own. Till they do, doctors may prescribe pain-relieving medication like ibuprofen. For larger stones, doctors perform shock wave lithotripsy, entailing administering a series of soundwaves from outside the body to break stones into fragments. In more serious cases of huge stones, open surgery is undertaken.


You can easily find a urologist to treat any kidney problems from the Bajaj Health Card hospital list, related to the Bajaj Finserv Health EMI Card. The card affords you the best medical care by dividing all your medical expenses into EMIs payable over 24 months. Choose from 5,500+ partners in over 1,000 cities, and get medical care ranging from stem-cell treatment to cosmetic surgery.